Thursday, April 30, 2015

39 Articles Course Notes - Articles 32-39

Article 18- : The Church
Articles 32-36: The Disciplines of the Church
Articles 37-39: Christians and Civil Society

Article 32: Of the Marriage of Priests

Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, are not commanded by God's Law, either to vow the estate of single life, or to abstain from marriage: therefore it is lawful for them, as for all other Christian men, to marry at their own discretion, as they shall judge the same to serve better to godliness.

Clerical celibacy a late requirement . The Apostle Peter himself married. Clement of Alexandria mentions married priests and the 5th Century historian Socrates refers to married bishops in the East. The Council of Gangra in 324 anathematised those who separated themselves from married priests and the Council of Nicea in 325 rejected a rule of clerical celibacy. Pope Gregory the Great tried to impose clerical celibacy. The Councils of Carthage (end of 4th C), Toledo (691-2) and Arles (early 5th C) required some clerical celibacy but as late as the 11th C married clergy were still common in the Western Church. Pope Gregory VII issued a decree in 1074 forbidding the laity to receive ministry from married priests and in the English church an absolute rule of clerical celibacy was imposed from 1102. The first Lateran council in 1123 required clerical celibacy in the whole western church. Irish clergy including abbots were usually married with children right up to the Reformation. 24th session of the Council of Trent in Nov 1563 upheld clerical celibacy. Clerical celibacy helped preserve the finances of the church. Clerical celibacy in England ended in 1547/9?. Archbishops Cranmer and Parker had both married. By the time of Mary I perhaps 1/3 of the English clergy had married.
1 Cor 9:5; 1 Tim 3:2, 12; Titus 1:5-6. Philip the deacon married (1 Cor 16:19)
Cf. Article 20 – the church has no power to command anything contrary to God’s word written
On celibacy: Mt 19:1-12; 1 Cor 7:1-9

Article 33: Of excommunicated Persons, how they are to be avoided

That person which by open denunciation of the Church is rightly cut off from the unity of the Church, and excommunicated, ought to be taken of the whole multitude of the faithful, as an Heathen and Publican, until he be openly reconciled by penance, and received into the Church by a Judge that hath the authority thereunto.

Exclusion of people from Israel: Gen 17:14; Ex 12:19; Lev 7:20; Ez 10:8
Lk 6:22; Jn 9:22; 12:42; 16:2
Mt 18:15-18; 1 Cor 5; 1 Tim 1:19-20; Rm 16:17; 1 Cor 15:33; 2 Cor 6:14, 17; 2 Thess 3:6, 14; 2 Jn 10-11; Tit 3:10-11
The Book of Common Prayer – rubric before Communion; in Communion service, after creed; burial service not to be used for the excommunicated; Commination service
Canon B16
Cf. boycotts and sanctions

Article 34: Of the Traditions of the Church

It is not necessary that the Traditions and Ceremonies be in all places one, or utterly like; for at all times they have been divers, and may be changed according to the diversity of countries, times, and men's manners, so that nothing be ordained against God's Word. Whosoever, through his private judgment, willingly and purposely, doth openly break the Traditions and Ceremonies of the Church, which be not repugnant to the Word of God, and be ordained and approved by common authority, ought to be rebuked openly, (that others may fear to do the like,) as he that offendeth against the common order of the Church, and hurteth the authority of the Magistrate, and woundeth the consciences of the weak brethren.

Every particular or national Church hath authority to ordain, change, and abolish, Ceremonies or Rites of the Church ordained only by man's authority, so that all things be done to edifying.

Cf. Articles 6, 20, 21. The supreme authority of Scripture. A limited authority of the church – a desire for unity especially at the national level. Diversity allowable. See The Book of Common Prayer, ‘On ceremonies’. The close links between church and state in Reformation England - order of the church backed up by the state – Rm 13:1-7; 1 Pt 2:13-14. Weak brethren, 1 Cor 8:1-13; Rm 14:13-23. Principle of edification: 1 Cor 14:26.

Article 35: Of the Homilies

The Second Book of Homilies, the several titles whereof we have joined under this Article, doth contain a godly and wholesome Doctrine, and necessary for these times, as doth the former Book of Homilies, which were set forth in the time of Edward the Sixth; and therefore we judge them to be read in Churches by the Ministers, diligently and distinctly, that they may be understanded of the people.

Of the Names of the Homilies

1 Of the right Use of the Church.
2 Against Peril of Idolatry.
3 Of repairing and keeping clean of Churches.
4 Of good Works: first of Fasting.
5 Against Gluttony and Drunkenness.
6 Against Excess of Apparel.
7 Of Prayer.
8 Of the Place and Time of Prayer.
9 That Common Prayers and Sacraments ought to be ministered in a known tongue.
10 Of the reverend Estimation of God's Word.
11 Of Alms-doing.
12 Of the Nativity of Christ.
13 Of the Passion of Christ.
14 Of the Resurrection of Christ.
15 Of the worthy receiving of the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ.
16 Of the Gifts of the Holy Ghost.
17 For the Rogation-days
18 Of the State of Matrimony.
19 Of Repentance.
20 Against Idleness.
21 Against Rebellion.

According to Jelf, at one time during the Reformation as many as 8000 parishes lacked preaching ministers. 1st Book of Homilies published in 1547 under Elizabeth I. 2nd Book of Homilies published in 1563. (Homily against rebellion written by Archbishop Parker added in 1571).

Article 36: Of Consecration of Bishops and Ministers

The Book of Consecration of Archbishops and Bishops, and Ordering of Priests and Deacons, lately set forth in the time of Edward the Sixth, and confirmed at the same time by authority of Parliament, doth contain all things necessary to such Consecration and Ordering; neither hath it any thing, that of itself is superstitious and ungodly. And therefore whosoever are consecrated or ordered according to the Rites of that Book, since the second year of the forenamed King Edward unto this time, or hereafter shall be consecrated or ordered according to the same Rites; we decree all such to be rightly, orderly, and lawfully consecrated and ordered.

A reference to the Ordinals of 1550 & 1552. The second year of Edward’s reign was 1548-9. Some had questioned its validity since it was repealed by Mary. As the preface to the ordinal says, to be ordained it was thought necessary to be called, tried, examined, known to have the necessary qualities and then by prayer with the imposition of hands be approved and admitted to office. Acts 6:6; 13:3. The 1552 Ordinal was replaced by the Ordinal attached to the 1662 Prayer Book. Canon A8.

Article 37: Of the Civil Magistrates

The Queen's Majesty hath the chief power in this Realm of England, and other her Dominions, unto whom the chief Government of all Estates of this Realm, whether they be Ecclesiastical or Civil, in all causes doth appertain, and is not, nor ought to be, subject to any foreign Jurisdiction.

Where we attribute to the Queen's Majesty the chief government, by which Titles we understand the minds of some slanderous folks to be offended; we give not our Princes the ministering either of God's Word, or of the Sacraments, the which thing the Injunctions also lately set forth by Elizabeth our Queen do most plainly testify; but that only prerogative, which we see to have been given always to all godly Princes in holy Scriptures by God himself; that is, that they should rule all estates and degrees committed to their charge by God, whether they be Ecclesiastical or Temporal, and restrain with the civil sword the stubborn and evil-doers.

The Bishop of Rome hath no jurisdiction in this Realm of England.

The Laws of the Realm may punish Christian men with death, for heinous and grievous offenses.

It is lawful for Christian men, at the commandment of the Magistrate, to wear weapons, and serve in the wars.

Canon A7 Of The Royal Supremacy
Authority of kings: Prov 8:15, 17; Rom 13; 1 Pt 2:13-15
On Peter: Mt 16:18.
Christ and Peter paid taxes to the king (Mt 17:24-27).
Cf. private vengeance taking and public roles
Just War

Article 38: Of Christian Men's Goods, which are not common

The Riches and Goods of Christians are not common, as touching the right, title, and possession of the same; as certain Anabaptists do falsely boast. Notwithstanding, every man ought, of such things as he possesseth, liberally to give alms to the poor, according to his ability.

Against some radical protestant groups. Acts 2:44-45; 4:32. Laws against theft and coveting and the encouragement of almsgiving assume property rights. Acts 5:4.
Dt 15:11; Prov 19:17; Is 58:7; Mt 10:42; 25:35-40; Mk 9:41; 1 Thess 5:14; Heb 13:16; Jam 2:5

Article 39: Of a Christian Man's Oath

As we confess that vain and rash Swearing is forbidden Christian men by our Lord Jesus Christ, and James his Apostle, so we judge, that Christian Religion doth not prohibit, but that a man may swear when the Magistrate requireth, in a cause of faith and charity, so it be done according to the Prophet's teaching in justice, judgment, and truth.

Again against some radical protestant groups. The Article has in mind Mt 5:33-37 and James 5:12. Dt 6:13; 10:20; Ps 22:25; 63:11; Ex 22:10-11; Jer 4:2; Heb 6:16; Mt 26:63; Rm 9:1; Gal 1:20. Examples of oaths in the Bible: Christ said, “Amen, Amen…” (Jn 3:3, 5, 11 etc.) 2 Cor 1:23; Gen 22:16; 24:3; 21:23; 1 Sam 18:3; 20:12-17, 42; Judges 11:29-40. Jerome said, “Every Christian man’s word should be so true, that it should be regarded as an oath.”
Oaths of allegiance and canonical obedience – see Canon C13 and 14

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